History[ edit ] The usage of mosquito netting is mainly used for the protection against the malaria transmitting vector, Anopheles gambiae. The first record of malaria-like symptoms occurred as early as BCE from China. The vector for this disease was not identified until when Sir Ronald Ross identified mosquitos as a vector for malaria.
Though use of the term dates from the midth century,  Indian literature from the late medieval period has references to the usage of mosquito nets in ritual Hindu worship. Poetry composed by Annamayya , the earliest known Telugu musician and poet, references domatera, which means "mosquito net" in Telugu.
It is said that Cleopatra , the last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt , also slept under a mosquito net. It is constructed of a fine see-through mesh fabric mounted on and draped over a box-shaped frame. It is designed to fit over an area or item such as a sleeping bag to provide protection from insects. A mosquito bar could be used to protect oneself from mosquitos and other insects while sleeping in jungle areas. The frame is usually self-supporting or freestanding although it can be designed to be attached from the top to an alternative support such as tree limbs.
For effectiveness, it is important that the netting not have holes or gaps large enough to allow insects to enter. It is also important to 'seal' the net properly because mosquitos are able to 'squeeze' through improperly secured nets. Because an insect can bite a person through the net, the net must not rest directly on the skin. When hung over beds, rectangular nets provide more room for sleeping without the danger of netting contacting skin, at which point mosquitos may bite through untreated netting.
When used for fishing, mosquito nets have harmful ecological consequences because the fine mesh of a mosquito net retains almost all fish, including bycatch such as immature or small fish and fish species that are not suitable for consumption.
Carnevale and its team in Soumossou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Africa. For maximum effectiveness, ITNs should be re-impregnated with insecticide every six months. This process poses a significant logistical problem in rural areas. ITNs protect people sleeping under them and simultaneously kill mosquitoes that contact the nets. Some protection is provided to others by this method, including people sleeping in the same room but not under the net.
However, mathematical modeling has suggested that disease transmission may be exacerbated after bed nets have lost their insecticidal properties under certain circumstances. Additionally, proponents of cost-sharing argue that such a policy ensures that nets are efficiently allocated to the people who most need them or are most vulnerable to infection. Through a "selection effect", they argue, the people who most need the bed nets will choose to purchase them, while those less in need will opt out.
However, a randomized controlled trial study of ITNs uptake among pregnant women in Kenya , conducted by economists Pascaline Dupas and Jessica Cohen, found that cost-sharing does not necessarily increase the usage intensity of ITNs nor does it induce uptake by those most vulnerable to infection, as compared to a policy of free distribution.
In a cost-effectiveness analysis, Dupas and Cohen note that "cost-sharing is at best marginally more cost-effective than free distribution, but free distribution leads to many more lives saved.
This process can be accelerated or decelerated via weather; more specifically heat. Therefore, malaria transmission to humans does not take place until approximately the 10th day, although it requires blood meals at intervals of 2 to 5 days.
With fewer mosquitoes, the chances of malaria infection for recipients and non-recipients are significantly reduced. In other words, the importance of the physical barrier effect of ITNs decreases relative to the positive externality effect[ clarification needed ] of the nets in creating a mosquito-free environment when ITNs are highly concentrated in one residential cluster or community.
Unfortunately, standard ITNs must be replaced or re-treated with insecticide after six washes and, therefore, are not seen as a convenient, effective long-term solution to the malaria problem. There are three types of LLINs — polyester netting which has insecticide bound to the external surface of the netting fibre using a resin; polyethylene which has insecticide incorporated into the fibre and polypropylene which has insecticide incorporated into the fibre.
All types can be washed at least 20 times, but physical durability will vary. A survey carried out in Tanzania concluded that effective life of polyester nets was 2 to 3 years;  with polyethylene LLINs there is data to support over 5 years of life with trials in showing nets which were still effective after 7 years.
A more expensive net may be cheaper over time.
The size of the holes determines what size of insects are kept out and airflow and hence the temperature that the inside of the net reaches. Pyrethroid treatments can last a couple of years and numerous washes before any re-treatment is needed. Next check for somewhere to suspend your net.
In addition the logistical costs of replacing nets should be added to the calculation. Scientific trials[ edit ] A review of 22 randomized controlled trials of ITNs  found for Plasmodium falciparum malaria that ITNs can reduce deaths in children by one fifth and episodes of malaria by half.
As such the review calculated that for every children protected by ITNs, 5. Through the years and the abundance of female anopheles gambiae densities in houses throughout western Kenya were recorded.
This data set was paired with the spatial data of bed net usage in order to determine correlation. Results showed that from to the relative population density of the female anopheles gambiae decreased from This result did however vary from region to region based on the local environment. Associated problems[ edit ] Malaria and other arboviruses are known to contribute to economic disparity within that country and vice versa.
This opens the stage for corruption associated to the distribution of self-protection aides.
A decrease in per capita income exaggerates a high demand for resources such as water and food resulting in civil unrest among communities. Protecting resources as well as attempting to obtain resources are both a cause for conflict.
Alternatives[ edit ] Mosquito nets do reduce air flow to an extent and sleeping under a net is hotter than sleeping without one, which can be uncomfortable in tropical areas without air-conditioning. The use of a fan to increase air flow. Wearing clothing treated with insect repellency. Insect repellent clothing offers the advantage of long-lasting protection, requiring no re-application.
This protection is usually odorless and invisible, and, unlike traditional insect repellents, the repellency is near the skin, instead of on it, which can help alleviate concerns about overuse or misuse of insect repellent.
This was a common practice in the lateth Century. However, due to an increased awareness of the environmental hazards associated with the insecticide DDT used for some of these programs, this practice became less common. For example - American funding for African programs were cut and the number of malaria-infected subjects skyrocketed. If the aggressive style of application is not maintained then the risk of an increase of genetically-resistant mosquitos increases.
This would ultimately result in an unrealistic mediation process.
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